2 us präsident

Aktuelle Nachrichten, Informationen und Bilder zum Thema US-Präsident auf dutyfreecigs.eu ist aber weiter nicht in Sicht. Trump Meme 2. jetzt. USA. Die Whig Party war eine politische Partei in den Vereinigten Staaten von. Die Liste der Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten führt die Staatsoberhäupter in der Geschichte der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika vollständig auf. Neben allen Personen, die das Amt als Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten nach Inkrafttreten der US-amerikanischen 2. Washington war der erste Präsident nach dem Amerikanischen.

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Louisiana ein Todesurteil wegen der Vergewaltigung eines Kindes für verfassungswidrig erklärte. Roosevelt selbst erfreute sich hoher Popularität in der Bevölkerung; durch seine als Kamingespräche bekannt gewordenen Radio-Ansprachen wandte er sich direkt an das amerikanische Volk, um seine Politik zu erklären. Die Lebensdaten des jeweiligen Präsidenten befinden sich in Klammern unter den Namen. Januar offiziell fest. Nach Bekanntwerden von Washingtons Verzicht auf eine dritte Amtszeit verschärfte sich das politische Klima erheblich und hatte stellenweise die Form einer Hetze. September , abgerufen am 8. Am Wahltag, dem 5.

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Noch im Jahr war Adams mit überwältigender Mehrheit in die Assembly gewählt worden, wo er sich der Fraktion der Whigs anschloss. Anfangs war Adams wie sein Amtsvorgänger vor allem damit beschäftigt, auf Briefe, zumeist von Veteranen des Unabhängigkeitskrieges, zu antworten, die um eine Stelle in der Verwaltung baten. Der Präsident ist Staatsoberhaupt , Regierungschef und Oberbefehlshaber zugleich. Wie von ihm vorhergesehen, reagierte die Zentralgewalt darauf mit einer deutlichen Stärkung ihrer Autorität, die die Philadelphia Convention im September mit Verabschieden der Verfassung der Vereinigten Staaten herstellte. Nachdem ein Kompromiss in Fragen der Sklavenhaltung gefunden worden war, wurde auch Missouri Bundesstaat. November waren die Gerichte für längere Zeit geschlossen und Adams vorerst erwerbslos. Eine Ausnahme gilt bezüglich Grover Cleveland , der als bisher einziger Präsident zwei Amtszeiten absolvierte, die nicht direkt aufeinander folgten. Zwischen ihm und Adams aber auch Abigail entwickelte sich eine enge Freundschaft. Adams untersucht unterschiedliche Arten von Republiken und identifiziert das Westminster-System als ideale Regierungsform, die in bpl player of the month Tradition von Cicero stehe und in Amerika erfolgreich von der Macht des Adels befreit worden sei. Sie entstammte einer der wohlhabenden Kaufmannsfamilien Neuenglands und brachte eine Mitgift von einer Million Dollar in die Ehe ein. Zudem war er sich der innenpolitischen Widerstände dagegen durch die Republicans bewusst. Januarvon Firmen und Korporationen finanzierte Wahlwerbung auch in öffentlichen Medien zuzulassen, die zuvor 20 Jahre lang begrenzt und 60 Tage vor einer Präsidentschaftswahl verboten gewesen war. Sie schulten ihn in die fünfte 2 us präsident der privaten Punahou School ein, italien spanien gelbe karten er mit Auszeichnung abschloss. Leipzig market Januar besuchte Obama mit einer Kongressdelegation die US-Truppen in Kuwait und im Irak und merkte dabei öffentlich an, der Konflikt dort sei nicht militärisch lösbar. Oktober waren die Whigs zusätzlich geschwächt.

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Wie die Schlappe zur Chance werden soll. Tea-Party-Bewegung kämpft gegen Obamas Reformen. Der wirtschaftliche Boom der er-Jahre wurde der republikanischen Regierung zugerechnet. Die Forderung nach Gleichheit aller Menschen bewertet er als illusorisch, da Individuen sich in der Realität immer hinsichtlich ihrer Fähigkeiten, Mittel und Motive unterscheiden werden. Roosevelt zog die republikanischen Beschuldigungen bei einem Vortrag am Retrieved November 9, The Court found that "[t]he Congress is the legislative department of the government; the President is the executive department. The President may require the "principal officer" of any executive department to tender his advice in writing. Bundesliga im ausland addition to separation of powers and equally important to wie ist meine email adresse government, each independent and sovereign branch also provides checks and balances on the operation and power of the other two branches. The President must "take care that the laws be faithfully carragher. At various times in U. The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime leo vegas casino ervaringen varied dramatically. Balogh, Brian and Bruce J. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Following the demokonto traden resolution of visa / mastercard withdrawal methods casino and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference inVirginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Marylandwith an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. A quick history of the presidential oath". The President, furthermore, may grant pardon or reprieves, except in cases of impeachment. Section 2 of Article Two lays out the powers of the presidency, gutschein für casino basteln that the president serves as the commander-in-chief of the military and has the power to grant pardons and require the "principal officer" of any executive department to tender advice. Retrieved December 15,

2 Us Präsident Video

Trump: Was kostet der US-Präsident die Steuerzahler in den USA? Obama reiste am Der Präsident ist StaatsoberhauptRegierungschef und Oberbefehlshaber zugleich. Im Frühsommer reiste er mit Abigail nach Quincy, die dort schwer erkrankte. Die wirtschaftliche Krise von schwächte die eintracht trier tabelle Weltwirtschaft. Bei seiner letzten Pressekonferenz als Präsident sagte Obama, dass er sich verantwortlich fühle für das Leid in Syrien. Hierdurch kann ein bereits zweifach gewählter Präsident auch nicht über den Umweg als Vizepräsident nochmals admira mödling das Präsidentenamt gelangen. Seit dem Börsencrash vom Oktober hatte handy ägypten die Wirtschaftsleistung erheblich verringert und die Arbeitslosigkeit war auf einem Rekordniveau. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Die Spiele für windows Adams, den er mit Georges Clemenceau verglich, veranschlagte er höher paysafe guthaben checken die von Jefferson. Obwohl Roosevelt bereits im ersten Wahlgang casino tschchien Mehrheit der Em quali ticker erhielt, konnte er sich die notwendige Zweidrittelmehrheit der Delegiertenstimmen erst im vierten Wahldurchlauf sichern. Barack Obama — Leben und Aufstieg. Wurden in den acht Jahren der Amtszeit von George W. Es war die erste Vereidigung, die an einem Erst im April dieses Jahres war seine Frau Barbara gestorben. Nach dem Sturz Gaddafis ergab sich ein Machtvakuum, und Libyen wurde destabilisiert. Aufgrund des fortgeschrittenen Alters führte Adams seine Anwaltstätigkeit nicht mehr fort und widmete sich dem Familienleben sowie den vielen Besuchern, die nach Peacefield kamen. Dezember im Webarchiv archive. August , archiviert vom Original am Bei der Präsidentschaftswahl am 7. Von bis bekleidete er das Amt des Gouverneurs von Georgia. Nach den Terroranschlägen vom Am Ende seiner Amtsperiode verzichtete Polk als erster Präsident freiwillig auf eine zweite Amtszeit. Nach dem japanischen Überfall auf Pearl Harbor am 7. Es wurde unter anderem die Einteilung Deutschlands in vier Besatzungszonen vereinbart auch Frankreich wurde eine Zone zugestanden. Mai verabschiedete der Kontinentalkongress nach einer dreitägigen intensiv geführten Debatte die von Adams konzipierte Präambel zum Gesetzesentwurf vom November um

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.

Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.

Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green.

Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.

United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.

Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.

Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved November 9, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association. Origins and Development 5th ed.

Its Origins and Development. Retrieved January 20, Founding the American Presidency. The Making of the American Constitution.

Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required.

Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.

The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.

By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.

Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.

Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.

He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.

Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration. Retrieved August 7, Retrieved February 5, Noel Canning , U.

United States , U. Olson , U. Retrieved January 23, But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M.

Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.

The prosecutor charged that Mr. Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.

Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.

In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds [] and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.

Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege.

Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.

But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.

Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, Legal experts discuss the implications. Boy Scouts of America.

The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.

The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet. But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.

Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.

Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.

Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch". Ginsberg and Crenson unite". Retrieved September 21, The Executive Branch, Annenberg Classroom".

The National Constitution Center. Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment". Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved June 12, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution.

The Annenberg Public Policy Center. CRS Report for Congress. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 1, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.

Retrieved July 27, Retrieved February 20, From George Washington to George W. Bush 2nd revised ed. Office of the Historian, U. Retrieved July 24, Constitution of the United States of America: Retrieved August 3, A quick history of the presidential oath".

Heritage Guide to the Constitution. Before and After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment". Fordham University School of Law. Retrieved December 13, The American Presidency Project [online].

University of California hosted. Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts". Retrieved January 2, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved July 31, Dollar Amount, to Present".

Archived from the original on December 14, White House Military Office. Retrieved June 17, Air Force aircraft carrying the president will use the call sign "Air Force One.

Secret Service to unveil new presidential limo". Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved December 16, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 18, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved January 10, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on August 23, United States Secret Service.

Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved March 11, Retrieved April 3, Balogh, Brian and Bruce J.

Recapturing the Oval Office: Bumiller, Elisabeth January The Complete Book of Presidential Trivia. A Reference History 3rd ed.

Rating the Best and the Worst in the White House. University of Helsinki, Primary sources Waldman, Michael — Stephanopoulos, George. Interview with Joseph G.

Peschek and William Grover, authors of The Unsustainable Presidency , a book offering an analysis of the role the US President plays in economics and politics.

President of the United States. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A. Garfield Chester A.

Roosevelt — Harry S. Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B. Bush — Bill Clinton — George W.

Bush — Barack Obama — Donald Trump —present. Section 1 begins with a vesting clause that confers federal executive power upon the President.

The former bestows federal legislative power exclusively to Congress, and the latter grants judicial power solely to the Supreme Court.

These three articles create a separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government. In addition to separation of powers and equally important to limited government, each independent and sovereign branch also provides checks and balances on the operation and power of the other two branches.

First, the President lacks executive authority explicitly granted to Congress. Hence the President cannot declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal , or regulate commerce, even though executives had often wielded such authority in the past.

In these instances, Congress retained portions of the executive power that the Continental Congress had wielded under the Articles of Confederation.

In fact, because those actions require legislation passed by Congress which must be signed by the President to take effect, those powers are not strictly executive powers granted to or retained by Congress per se.

Nor were they retained by the U. Congress as leftovers from the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation, Continental Congress and its powers were abolished at the time the new U.

Congress was seated and the new federal government formally and officially replaced its interim predecessor. And although the President is imlplicitly denied the power to unilaterally declare war, a declaration of war is not in and of itself a vehicle of executive power since it is literally just a public declaration that the U.

Regardless of the inability to declare war, the President does have the power to unilaterally order military action in defense of the United States pursuant to "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces".

Once proper legal notification is given to the required members of Congress, military action can continue for up to 60 days without further authorization from Congress, or up to 90 days if the President "determines and certifies to the Congress in writing that unavoidable military necessity respecting the safety of United States Armed Forces requires the continued use of such armed forces in the course of bringing about a prompt removal of such forces.

Second, specific constitutional provisions may check customary executive authority. Notwithstanding their executive power, the President cannot make treaties or appointments without the advice and consent of the Senate.

However, the President does determine and decide U. Additionally, since official treaties are specifically created under and by constitutional U.

As far as presidential appointments, as with treaties a person is not officially and legally appointed to a position until their appointment is approved by the Senate.

Prior to Senate approval and publication of that approval along with an official date and time for their swearing-in and assumption of duties and responsibilities, they are nominees rather than appointees.

And again, the President nominates people for specific positions at their pleasure and can do so without or in spite of Senate advice.

Senate consent occurs when a majority of senators votes to approve and therefore appoint a nominee. The head of the Executive Branch is the President.

Although also named in this first clause, the Vice President is not constitutionally vested with any executive power.

Nonetheless, the Constitution dictates that the President and Vice President are to be elected at the same time, for the same term, and by the same constituency.

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: Constitution the President and Vice President are chosen by Electors , under a constitutional grant of authority delegated to the legislatures of the several states.

The Constitution reserves the choice of the precise manner for creating Electors to the will of the state legislatures. It does not define or delimit what process a state legislature may use to create its state college of Electors.

In practice, the state legislatures have generally chosen to create Electors through an indirect popular vote, since the s.

Most states have a "winner-take-all" system in which the candidate with the most votes in the state gets all the electoral votes. In an indirect popular vote, it is the names of the candidates who are on the ballot to be elected.

Most states do not put the names of the electors on the ballot. There are a few cases where some electors have refused to vote for the designated candidate.

Many states have mandated in law that Electors shall cast their electoral college ballot for the designated Presidential Candidate. Each state chooses as many Electors as it has Representatives and Senators representing it in Congress.

While Senators, Representatives and federal officers are barred from becoming Electors, in practice the two major federal parties frequently select senior officials at the state level up to and including Governors to serve as Electors.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.

And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate.

The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted.

The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse [ sic ] by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse [ sic ] the President.

But in chusing [ sic ] the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.

But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse [ sic ] from them by Ballot the Vice President. This procedure was changed by the 12th Amendment in In modern practice, each state chooses its electors in popular elections.

Once chosen, the electors meet in their respective states to cast ballots for the President and Vice President. The individual with the majority of votes became President, and the runner-up became Vice President.

In case of a tie between candidates who received votes from a majority of electors, the House of Representatives would choose one of the tied candidates; if no person received a majority, then the House could again choose one of the five with the greatest number of votes.

When the House voted, each state delegation cast one vote, and the vote of a majority of states was necessary to choose a President. If second-place candidates were tied, then the Senate broke the tie.

A quorum in the House consisted of at least one member from two-thirds of the state delegations; there was no special quorum for the Senate.

This procedure was followed in after the electoral vote produced a tie, and nearly resulted in a deadlock in the House. Obviously, having the Electors meet in the national capital or some other single venue could have permitted the Electors to choose a President be means of an exhaustive ballot without Congressional involvement, but the Framers were dissuaded from such an arrangement by two major considerations.

First, it would have been quite burdensome for Electors from distant states to travel to the national capital using eighteenth century means for the sole purpose of electing the President - since they were to be barred from simultaneously serving in the federal government in any other capacity, Electors would likely have no other reason to go there.

The 12th Amendment introduced a number of important changes to the procedure. Now, Electors do not cast two votes for President; rather, they cast one vote for President and another for Vice President.

In case no Presidential candidate receives a majority, the House chooses from the top three not five, as before the 12th Amendment. It also stipulates that to be the Vice President, a person must be qualified to be the President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing [ sic ] the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Congress sets a national Election Day. The Electors cast their votes on the Monday following the second Wednesday in December the first Monday after December 12 of that year.

Thereafter, the votes are opened and counted by the Vice President, as President of the Senate , in a joint session of Congress. Section 1 of Article Two of the United States Constitution sets forth the eligibility requirements for serving as president of the United States:.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

At the time the President takes office they must be:. A person who meets the above qualifications, may still be constitutionally disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

This clause was partially superseded by the 25th Amendment in The wording of this clause caused much controversy at the time it was first used.

When William Henry Harrison died in office, a debate arose over whether the Vice President would become President, or if he would just inherit the powers, thus becoming an Acting President.

However, many Senators argued that he only had the right to assume the powers of the presidency long enough to call for a new election. Because the wording of the clause is so vague, it was impossible for either side to prove its point.

The "Tyler Precedent" established that if the President dies, resigns or is removed from office, the Vice President becomes President. The Congress may provide for a line of succession beyond the Vice President.

There are concerns regarding the constitutionality of having members of Congress in the line of succession, however, as this clause specifies that only an " officer of the United States " may be designated as a presidential successor.

Constitutional scholars from James Madison to the present day have argued that the term "officer" excludes members of Congress.

The 25th Amendment explicitly states that if the President dies, resigns or is removed from office, the Vice President becomes President, and also establishes a procedure for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President.

The Amendment further provides that the President, or the Vice President and Cabinet, can declare the President unable to discharge his duties, in which case the Vice President becomes Acting President.

If the declaration is done by the Vice President and Cabinet, the Amendment permits the President to take control back, unless the Vice President and Cabinet challenge the President and two-thirds of both Houses vote to sustain the findings of the Vice President and Cabinet.

If the declaration is done by the President, he may take control back without risk of being overridden by the Congress.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

The President may not receive other compensation from either the federal or any state government. Before he enters the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: According to the Joint Congressional Committee on Presidential Inaugurations, George Washington added the words "So help me God" during his first inaugural, [9] though this has been disputed.

It is sometimes asserted that the oath bestows upon the President the power to do whatever is necessary to "preserve, protect and defend the Constitution.

In suspending the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus , President Abraham Lincoln claimed that he acted according to the oath. His action was challenged in court and overturned by the U.

Taney in Ex Parte Merryman , 17 F. The Vice President also has an oath of office, but it is not mandated by the Constitution and is prescribed by statute.

Currently, the Vice Presidential oath is the same as that for Members of Congress. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter.

So help me God. In the landmark decision Nixon v. General Services Administration , Justice William Rehnquist , afterwards the Chief Justice , declared in his dissent the need to "fully describe the preeminent position that the President of the United States occupies with respect to our Republic.

Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are indeed a powerful and incredible responsibility but as well as a great honor.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

The Constitution vests the President with Executive Power. That power reaches its zenith when wielded to protect national security.

Nevertheless, the power of the president to initiate hostilities has been subject to question. Alexander Hamilton spoke in such terms when he said that the president, although lacking the power to declare war, would have "the direction of war when authorized or begun.

The President may require the "principal officer" of any executive department to tender his advice in writing. While the Constitution nowhere requires a formal Cabinet , it does authorize the president to seek advice from the principal officers of the various departments as he or she performs their official duties.

George Washington found it prudent to organize his principal officers into a Cabinet, and it has been part of the executive branch structure ever since.

Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to widely differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H.

Seward advocated the use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government to President Abraham Lincoln, but was rebuffed.

Later, Woodrow Wilson advocated use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet while he was a professor, but as President he would have none of it in his administration.

In recent administrations, cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, and subsequent Presidents have followed that practice.

The President, furthermore, may grant pardon or reprieves, except in cases of impeachment. As ruled by the Supreme Court in United States v.

Wilson , the pardon could be rejected by the convict. Then, in Burdick v. United States , the court specifically said, "Circumstances may be made to bring innocence under the penalties of the law.

If so brought, escape by confession of guilt implied in the acceptance of a pardon may be rejected, preferring to be the victim of the law rather than its acknowledged transgressor, preferring death even to such certain infamy.

Commutations reduction in prison sentence , unlike pardons restoration of civil rights after prison sentence had been served may not be refused.

The Supreme court said, "[a] pardon in our days is not a private act of grace from an individual happening to possess power. It is a part of the Constitutional scheme.

When granted it is the determination of the ultimate authority that the public welfare will be better served by inflicting less than what the judgment fixed.

The President exercises the powers in the Advice and Consent Clause with the advice and consent of the Senate. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: The President may enter the United States into treaties, but they are not effective until ratified by a two-thirds vote in the Senate.

The first abrogation of a treaty occurred in , when Congress passed a law terminating a Treaty of Alliance with France. A Senate committee ruled that it was correct procedure for the President to terminate treaties after being authorized by the Senate alone, and not the entire Congress.

Some Presidents have claimed to themselves the exclusive power of terminating treaties. The first unambiguous case of a President terminating a treaty without authorization, granted prior to or after the termination, occurred when Jimmy Carter terminated a treaty with the Republic of China.

The President may also appoint judges, ambassadors, consuls, ministers and other officers with the advice and consent of the Senate.

By law, however, Congress may allow the President, heads of executive departments, or the courts to appoint inferior officials.

The Senate has a long-standing practice of permitting motions to reconsider previous decisions. In , the Senate granted advice and consent to the President on the appointment of a member of the Federal Power Commission.

The officer in question was sworn in, but the Senate, under the guise of a motion to reconsider, rescinded the advice and consent.

In the writ of quo warranto proceedings that followed, the Supreme Court ruled that the Senate was not permitted to rescind advice and consent after the officer had been installed.

After the Senate grants advice and consent, however, the President is under no compulsion to commission the officer.

It has not been settled whether the President has the prerogative to withhold a commission after having signed it.

This issue played a large part in the famous court case Marbury v.